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Tibet: benefici cinesi in nome dei tibetani

Il governo cinese ha investito tre miliardi di dollari, con un aumento del 31 per cento rispetto al 2008, a favore della regione autonoma del Tibet, ma i principali beneficiari finali sono gli immigrati cinesi e le imprese.

Segue articolo in inglese:

The government of China invested $3 billion in Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) last year, a 31 percent increase over 2008, but the main and ultimate beneficiaries are Chinese immigrants and businesses. Han Chinese workers, investors, merchants, teachers and soldiers are pouring into remote TAR to avail the opportunities offered under the government investment and the policies for the implementation of projects under it designed to benefit them.Since 2006, the TAR government has mandated that Tibetan farmers, herders and nomads use government subsidies to build new homes closer to roads. About 1.2 million rural Tibetans, nearly 40 percent of the TAR’s population, have been moved into new residences under the “comfortable housing” programme.

Under it, Tibetans have been forced to demolish their old homes, even if they were newly built recently, and move into new concrete homes with traditional Tibetan decorations dotting the stark brown countryside. The report said the government subsidy was usually worth only $1,500 per household, far short of the total needed. Families have generally had to take out multiple times that amount in interest-free three-year loans from state banks as well as private loans from relatives or friends.

“Many villagers around Lhasa have expressed pessimism about their ability to repay these loans, suggesting that the degree of debt for the new houses is beyond what they are comfortable with,” Emily Yeh, a scholar at the University of Colorado at Boulder who has researched the programme, was quoted as saying.

The report said that in the model village of Gaba, right outside Lhasa, residents had leased out their farmland for eight years to Han migrants to pay back the loans, which mostly ranged from $3,000 to $4,500. The migrants grow a wide variety of vegetables to be sold across China. Many of the Tibetan villagers now work in construction; they cannot compete with Han farmers because they generally know how to grow only barley, it said.

“Renting out the farmland was suggested by the bank,” Suolang Jiancan (Sonam Gyaltsen), the village head, was quoted as saying. “It would be a guaranteed income to pay back the loans.”

Large companies from China are also finding ways to tap Tibet’s resources, and to avail the special benefits being offered to them, the report noted. For example, a prominent mineral water company called 5100 that is registered in Hong Kong but managed from Beijing has set up a factory in Damxung, near Lhasa. Because the company employs Tibetans, it receives government subsidies, the report cited Ms Jiang Xiaohong, the factory’s Chinese manager, as saying. Although the average salary for the Tibetan workers, claimed to be about US$740 a month, is a small fortune, it is ethnic Han who are the company’s managers and owners, and the ones who ultimately profit from it, the report noted.

Last year, the company, named after the altitude of the glacier, produced almost two million gallons of water, which it shipped out on the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The water that is collected would otherwise flow through wetlands where yaks graze. It is unclear how the factory’s work has affected the ecosystem, the report said.

Fonte: Dossier Tibet, 28 luglio 2010